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What is happening in the writing world just now?

On this blog we hope to keep abreast of interesting business news. However it is good for writers to stay connected to what other writers are penning. Here are a few snippets from round the web that we have found from the writing world.

Next Week Only – Free Live Training from John Carlton and Colin Chung

Next Week Only – Free Live Training from John Carlton and Colin Chung

You’ve heard of the legendary John Carlton, right? One of Gary Halbert’s original “road dogs” who’s known as the “most ripped off copywriter” on the planet? The brains behind the one legged golfer ad and “gun to the head” copywriting? Of course you have. […]

So you’ll be interested to know that next week ONLY John’s offering training that normally costs $708 for absolutely FREE! Zilch. Nada. Cero.

The training will teach you 3 vitally important skills:

– How to Discover Your Unique “Copy DNA”… and never run out of ad ideas ever again…
– The Simple “Fill-in-the-Blank” Sentence… that turns your elevator pitch into instant sales!
– 3 Steps Every Close Needs… that turns almost any prospect into a customer-for-life…

At Copy Chief Live 2017

5 Karate-Inspired Moves to Beat Fear and Doubt for Freelancers

Next Week Only – Free Live Training from John Carlton and Colin ChungAre you one of those freelancers in the writer’s dojo who secretly thinks you’re too weak at this writing thing to earn a living? Maybe you’re scared you’ll screw up, suck at getting clients, fail to deliver high-quality work, and basically punch yourself in the face.When you’re a white-belt freelancer, it can be hard to know where to focus your energy. Lots of established freelancers have good advice. But where to start? Master these techniques, and you’ll be on your way to competing for high-paying clients with the best freelancers around.

The Content Marketer’s Guide to Starting a Meditation Practice Today

Next Week Only – Free Live Training from John Carlton and Colin ChungFor the execution of our craft, we depend on some key inner resources every day. Creativity and focus are two biggies. And I’m sure you’ve noticed that — like gold and platinum — those are precious and limited resources.

That’s why meditation is a powerful tool for content marketers.

You see, research shows that meditation can increase your focus and enhance your creativity. And that’s just the beginning.

  • Boost creativity in 10 to 12 minutes a day
  • Reduce stress, increase focus, improve your decision-making
  • How to build your focused awareness
  • Soon, you discover that your mind is like an unruly toddler. It has its own agenda — to chase after every new train of thought that appears in your awareness.
  • Reap the rewards of your practice

Some of the Copyblogger Team’s Favorite Writing and Content Sites

Next Week Only – Free Live Training from John Carlton and Colin ChungCopyblogger  wrap up the year with a collection of some favorite blogs and podcasts that teach writing, showcase writing, or help writers. This is very much a partial list…


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Tech’s terrible year: how the world turned on Silicon Valley in 2017

From the #DeleteUber campaign to fake news, the industry found itself in the crosshairs this year and it was a long time coming, experts say

When Jonathan Taplins book Move Fast and Break Things, which dealt with the worrying rise of big tech, was first published in the UK in April 2017, his publishers removed its subtitle because they didnt think it was supported by evidence: How Facebook, Google and Amazon cornered culture and undermined democracy.

When the paperback edition comes out early next year, that subtitle will be restored.

Its been a sea change in just six months, Taplin said. Before that, people were kind of asleep.

In the last year, barely a day has gone by without a scandal placing technology companies in the spotlight, whether for sexual harassment, livestreamed murder, Russian influence operations or terrorist propaganda.

Techs annus horribilis started with calls to #DeleteUber, but the way things are going it will end with calls to delete the entire internet.

2017 has definitely been a year when tech has found there is a target painted on its back, said Om Malik, a venture capitalist. The big companies have been so obsessed with growth that theres been a lack of social responsibility. Now the chickens are coming home to roost.

The surprise election of Donald Trump acted as a catalyst for scrutiny of the platforms that shape so much of our online experience. Even so, its taken many months for the enormity of their role to sink in.

Perhaps the biggest wake-up call has been the showdown in Washington. Congress summoned representatives from Facebook, Twitter and Google to testify over their role in a multi-pronged Russian operation to influence the 2016 presidential election. All three companies admitted that Russian entities bought ads on their sites in an attempt to skew the vote.

In Facebooks case, fake accounts pushed divisive messages in swing states; Google found similar activity across its paid search tool and YouTube; and on Twitter, armies of bots and fake users promoted fake news stories that were favourable to Donald Trump. Similar patterns were identified around the Brexit vote.

The election shows the stakes involved here, said Noam Cohen, author of The Know-It-Alls: The Rise of Silicon Valley as a Political Powerhouse and Social Wrecking Ball. In the past, to be a critic of Silicon Valley was to say the smartphone is making us dumb. Now its incompatible with democracy.

Its not been the only example of technology companies monetising and distributing unpalatable content and acting surprised when its uncovered.

In March, The Times of London revealed that YouTube had paid, via an advertising revenue share, Islamic extremists to peddle hate speech, leading to a boycott from many major advertisers. A second boycott started this month after brands discovered that their ads were appearing alongside content being exploited by paedophiles.

In May, the Guardians investigation into Facebooks content moderation policies revealed that the social network flouted Holocaust denial laws except where it feared being sued. Four months later, Pro Publica discovered that Facebooks ad tools could be used to target Jew haters.

Facebooks chief operating officer, Sheryl Sandberg, later said she was disgusted and disappointed that our systems allowed this.

Representatives of Facebook, Twitter and Google testify before lawmakers in October. Photograph: Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images

Taplin finds the technology companies standard response of Oops, well fix this frustrating and disingenuous.

Come on! What were you thinking? he said. If I can target women who drink bourbon in Tennessee who like trucks, then of course I could use it for dark purposes.

The deepening pockets and growing influence of companies like Facebook, Amazon, Google and Apple has raised concerns that they have become Goliaths, threatening the innovation Silicon Valley was once known for.

You only have to look at Snap to see what happens when you nip at the heels of a tech titan like Facebook: first, it makes an offer to buy you a strategy that worked with Instagram and WhatsApp and, if that fails, it eliminates you.

In Snaps case, this meant watching Facebook clone all of Snapchats features awkwardly at first, but relentlessly until Snapchats potential slice of the advertising market shriveled to a sliver.

[The Snap CEO] Evan Spiegel is having his hat handed to him, Taplin said, noting how Snaps stock had plummeted since the company went public in March.

As power consolidates into the hands of a few, the best a startup can hope for is to be bought by one of the tech giants. This, in turn, leads to further consolidation.

So the five largest tech companies desperate to avoid the kind of antitrust regulation that disrupted IBM and Microsofts dominance are flooding Washington with lobbyists, to the point where they now outspend Wall Street two to one.

Regulation is coming, said Malik. We have got to prepare for that. Everybody has figured out that we are the enemy number one now because we are rich and all the politicians smell blood.

It doesnt help that theres a rising number of former Silicon Valley engineers and business leaders who have morphed into tech dissenters, complaining about the addictive properties of the platforms and call for people particularly children to unplug.

In November, Facebooks founding president Sean Parker said the social network knew from the outset it was creating something addictive, something that exploited a vulnerability in human psychology a damning critique somewhat undermined by the fact that it was being delivered from the top of an enormous money pile generated by that exploitation.

The vast wealth on display in Silicon Valley in the private commuter buses, sprawling campuses and luxury condos does little to endear the companies and their employees to the rest of the world. Like it or not, tech workers have become the shining beacons of prosperity and elitism, shining a bit too brightly at a time of increasing income inequality.

The fact that $700 internet-connected juicers can raise $120m in funding before folding adds to the sense that Silicon Valley has lost its grip on reality.

Silicon Valley at its core wants to solve problems. I just think weve lost touch with the types of problems that actual people need solving, said Ankur Jain, who set up Kairos Society to encourage more entrepreneurs to solve problems where everyday people are being financially squeezed, such as housing, student loans and job retraining in the face of automation.

People are so removed from the rest of the ecosystem in Silicon Valley that these problems feel more like charity issues rather than issues that affect the vast majority of the population, Jain said.

For Malik, many of the problems stem from the fact that Silicon Valley companies have remained willfully ignorant of the fact that at the end of every data point there is a human being.

All the problems to have arisen over the last year are particularly jarring given the tech companies continued insistence that they are doing good for the world.

Its a form of gaslighting to have these companies doing so many harmful things telling you how great they are and how much they are helping you. Its another form of abuse, Cohen said.

Malik agreed. Silicon Valley is very good at using words like empathy and social responsibility as marketing buzzwords, but they are terms that we need to internalise as an industry and show through our actions by building the right things, he said. Otherwise its all bullshit.

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Trump travel ban should not apply to people with strong US ties, says court

Appeal judgment on hold until US supreme court rules on the latest version of block on people from Muslim countries

The US appeals court has said Donald Trumps hotly contested travel ban targeting people from six Muslim-majority countries should not be applied to people with strong ties to America.

The San Francisco-based 9th US circuit court of appeals, which covers several west coast states, also said its ruling on Friday would be put on hold pending a decision on the latest version of the travel ban from the Trump administration by the US supreme court.

Since taking office in January, the president has been struggling to enact a ban that passes court muster.

A three-judge panel from the 9th circuit narrowed a previous injunction from a lower federal court to those people with a credible bona fide relationship with the United States.

It also said that while the president has broad powers to regulate the entry of immigrants into the United States, those powers are not without limits.

We conclude that the presidents issuance of the proclamation once again exceeds the scope of his delegated authority, the panel said.

The ban targets people from Chad, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Syria and Yemen seeking to enter the US. Trump has said the travel ban is needed to protect the US from terrorism.

The state of Hawaii, however, challenged it in court, and a Honolulu federal judge said it exceeded Trumps powers under immigration law.

Trumps ban also covers people from North Korea and certain government officials from Venezuela, but the lower courts had already allowed those provisions to go into effect.

The same three-judge 9th Circuit panel, which limited a previous version of Trumps ban, heard arguments earlier this month.

Trump issued his first travel ban targeting several Muslim-majority countries in January, which caused chaos at airports and mass protests.

He issued a revised one in March after the first was blocked by federal courts.

That expired in September after a court fight and was replaced with the current version.

The ban has some exceptions. Certain people from each targeted country can still apply for a visa for tourism, business or education purposes, and applicants can ask for an individual waiver.

We are pleased that the supreme court has already allowed the government to implement the proclamation and keep all Americans safe while this matter is litigated. We continue to believe that the order should be allowed to take effect in its entirety, US justice department spokeswoman Lauren Ehrsam said in a statement.

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UK to warn Russia over cyber attacks

 Image copyright PA
Image caption Boris Johnson is the first UK foreign secretary to visit Russia in five years

Boris Johnson will warn Russia to stop cyber attacks which threaten Britain’s national security or face retaliation of a similar kind from the UK.

He will say the UK has no malign intentions online but has the technical capability to fight cyber espionage.

Mr Johnson is the first UK foreign secretary to visit Russia in five years.

His trip follows Theresa May’s accusation last month that Russia was trying to “undermine free societies”.

BBC diplomatic correspondent James Robbins says that relations between the two countries are “at best very bad, at worst, appalling”.

The UK prime minister warned in November about the risks of Russia’s “sustained campaign of cyber espionage and disruption”.

Her criticisms were repeated by Ciaran Martin, chief executive of GCHQ’s National Cyber Security Centre, who said that Russia was “seeking to undermine the international system”.

At a meeting in Moscow later, Mr Johnson will tell his counterpart, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, that the UK does not accept Russia’s “hostile” behaviour.

Ahead of that trip, Mr Johnson said that relations between the UK and Russia “haven’t been so bad for a very long time”.

“There are areas in which Russia is behaving in a more hostile way towards our interests than at any time since the end of the Cold War.

“I will make clear… that there are things that we find extremely difficult to accept, and we can’t accept.”

The two politicians are also set to discuss the threat posed to global security by North Korea, the search for a political settlement in Syria and preservation of the Iranian nuclear deal.

Mr Johnson will raise the subject of the safety of English football fans when Russia hosts the World Cup next year.

Russians were blamed for injuring more than 100 England supporters in Marseille during the 2016 European Football Championships.

‘Not business as usual’

By BBC diplomatic correspondent James Robbins

So what’s the point of this meeting, which has been cancelled twice before?

From Britain’s perspective, it’s to persuade Russia – as a fellow permanent member of the UN Security Council – to co-operate against common threats: from North Korea in particular, but also from a ruined Syria where no peace settlement is in sight.

The Russian Foreign Ministry says Russia is interested in “seeking a way to normalise relations with Britain, and to reactivate cooperation”.

But Boris Johnson says it cannot simply be “a return to business as usual”. There are low expectations of any substantial progress.

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Brexit chat at Christmas and How to Handle It

Image copyright Getty Images

“What do you make of this Brexit business, then?”

With the prospect of family Christmas get-togethers looming, this might be a question to dread.

First up, it’s still an issue on which Britons tend to be divided – and one that can provoke strong feelings, particularly after a sherry or two.

Second, you might not have been paying attention since last year’s referendum (Leave won).

So how to perfect your Brexit chat and navigate this political hot potato over Christmas?

Avert a row

Image copyright Getty Images

It’s Christmas dinner, and a relative is letting rip on Brexit. You don’t agree and you’re starting to get riled. How can you avoid another family row?

You could try a Brexity joke, asking the host if sufficient progress has been made on the starter to move on to the next phase of the meal.

Or perhaps throw everyone by wondering aloud whether the turkey will be washed in chlorine in years to come.

If this bombs (it probably will, let’s face it), remind them of the Archbishop of Canterbury’s call for a Christmas “ceasefire” from insults about Brexit.

Media playback is unsupported on your device
Media captionA “ceasefire” on insults is needed in arguments on Brexit, says Archbishop Justin Welby

In that spirit, try one of the ready-made peace offerings in this article when the BBC asked Remain and Leave campaigners to suggest something positive about the other side.

Select one as appropriate and watch everyone around the table relax. Hopefully.

Sound scarily informed

Image copyright Getty Images

Your father-in-law at Christmas lunch – or the boss at your office party – starts asking you about the negotiations. You want to sound at least a little bit informed. Here are a few tips from BBC Brussels correspondent Adam Fleming to stop them in their tracks.

  • Mention “tariff rate quotas”. This is weapons-grade jargon and no-one will want you to explain it. (They allow a certain amount of products such as lamb from New Zealand’s to be imported duty free)
  • Suggest a bilat: When two leaders meet in a small room for an awkward handshake, most normal people would describe what happens next as a “chat”. Not in Brexit world, where it is called a “bilateral” or – if pushed for time – a “bilat”. As in “May and Tusk had a really positive bilat this morning”.
  • “Oh, that was in the guidelines”: The EU has stuck religiously to the guidelines approved by leaders in April. They should provide a safe response if you’re caught off guard (unless the other person has memorised them, in which case you’re in trouble).

Kill it

Image copyright Getty Images

The post-dinner Brexit conversation has been dragging on for hours, and you’re desperate to get to the pub.

How to box it off without putting anyone’s nose out of joint?

Declare that “Brexit means Brexit”. Theresa May’s slogan is hard to argue with, and will leave everyone scratching their heads as you head out of the door.

Say “nothing is agreed until everything is agreed” with a knowing wink. It’s become the negotiations’ catchphrase, used by both sides to keep everything on the table. Ministers sometimes use it to fend off tricky questions. Deploy it here and keep everyone happy as you make your excuses.

Avoid Brexit altogether

Image copyright Getty Images

Perhaps the safest option – just don’t go there. It’s an approach suggested by The Spectator’s Lara Prendergast, who has bemoaned people’s insistence on debating Brexit at social events.

“My approach is to avoid telling people how I voted in the referendum,” she says.

“I have taken to saying ‘would you mind if we talked about something else?’ There’s no topic more divisive and more boring.

“People used to say you don’t talk about sex, politics or religion – I think maybe Brexit should be the fourth one on that list.”

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Toys R Us staves off collapse after talks

Image copyright PA

Toys R Us has staved off collapse after creditors backed a rescue plan for the UK retailer.

It follows last-minute negotiations with the Pension Protection Fund (PPF) to secure a £9.8m injection into the company’s pension fund.

However, the rescue plan entails closing 26 of its 105 UK outlets, putting 800 jobs at risk, although no stores will close until spring 2018.

Toys R Us employs 3,200 staff in total in the UK.

The retailer’s creditors met on Thursday to vote on the rescue plan, which hinged on a resolution of the pension deficit. Toys R Us’s UK staff pension scheme has a deficit of more than £25m.


The PPF said the new offer from the company was composed of a payment of £3.8m in 2018, with a further £6m promised over 2019 and 2020.

The vote saw 98% of Toys R Us creditors backing the arrangement.

Toys R Us will continue to trade under its company voluntary arrangement (CVA), which is a step short of going into administration.

Steve Knights, managing director of Toys R Us UK, said: “The vote in favour of the CVA represents strong support for our business plan and provides us with the platform we need to transform our business so that we can better serve our customers today and long into the future.

“All of our stores across the UK will remain open for business as normal until spring 2018. Customers can continue to shop online and there will be no changes to our returns policies or gift cards across this period.”

Toys R Us factfile

  • The toy retailer started in the US in the 1950s
  • It reached the UK in 1985, as a subsidiary of the US chain, when it opened five stores
  • It launched its UK website in 1996
  • The retailer now has 105 stores around the UK
  • Its flagship stores are at London’s Brent Cross shopping centre and in Bristol

The company sells largely from warehouse-style stores at the edge of towns, but says these are now “too big and expensive to run”. It is also finding it hard to compete against online toy retailers.

The chain said that, as part of the CVA proposal, a number of these stores had been identified for closure.

It said talks with employees would start in the New Year.

Toy’s R Us’s parent company in the US is in formal bankruptcy protection proceedings. Recent reports suggest it is considering closing between 100 and 200 stores in America.

Figures released earlier this week show its US business lost $623m (£466.5m) in the quarter to the end of October, compared with $156m for the same period a year ago.

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You’re not allowed to wear Uggs into this airline’s airport lounges

Image: Corbis via Getty Images

Every product here is independently selected by Mashable journalists. If you buy something featured, we may earn an affiliate commission which helps support our work.

Putting aside how basic wearing Uggs makes you look, people love the boots because they’re warm and comfy. But did you know the fleece-lined boots will  alsoprevent you from entering an airport lounge? 

Yeah, we had no idea either. 

The Human League singer Joanne Catherall learned about this unusual dress code violation after trying to enter a Qantas lounge at Melbourne Airport while wearing the boots.

Catherall was denied access to the airline’s business class lounge because the boots are considered sleepwear. 

Boots… that you wear outside… are classified as sleepwear. We’d love to hear the reasoning behind this classification.

The singer took to Twitter to voice her frustration with the outrageous policy. A Qantas lounge staffer reportedly recommended she purchase new shoes at one of the airport’s shops in order to gain entry, adding further insult to injury.

Reasonable or not, Qantas’s lounge dress guidelines prohibit certain types of footwear and apparel such as flip flops (or “thongs,” if you’re Australian), beachwear, head-to-toe gymwear and sleepwear.

Image: screenshot: QANTAS

Looking at the airline’s illustrations, you can see a pair of Ugg-looking boots classified as sleepwear. 

Catherall noted that she’s never been blocked from entering other airport lounges for wearing Uggs.

As outlined on the Qantas website, the dress code isn’t limited to Melbourne Airport; it applies to all of the airline’s domestic airport lounges:

To ensure an enjoyable experience when you’re visiting our domestic Qantas Clubs and Business Lounges in Adelaide, Brisbane, Canberra, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney, we ask that you follow our smart casual dress guidelines.

The company’s website further adds: “These guidelines are intended to create an environment that everyone can enjoy and we look forward to welcoming you into our lounges soon.”

We checked with several airline dress policies and can confirm some, but not all, ban Uggs from their lounges.

Another Twitter user chimed in with a similar experience when flying from Brisbane Airport:

Banning Uggs from its lounges definitely sucks. It’s unlikely to change unless there’s widespread public outcry. Perhaps, Catherall’s unfortunate encounter could be the catalyst. 

#UggsNotSleepwear, anyone?

An Ugg spokesperson sent along a statement that touted the brand’s popularity and accessibility without addressing the airline’s definition of which footwear does and doesn’t qualify as sleeping apparel.

Millions of loyal fans love to wear UGG when they travel and beyond. The UGG brand is renowned for unparalleled premium quality, effortless comfort and timeless style. While we can’t speak to the airline’s dress code policy, UGG provides a multitude of styles that offer endless wearability for casual and fashionable occasions.

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Oracle to buy construction collaboration software maker Aconex for $1.2B in cash

Oracle will pay $1.2 billion in cash to buy construction software developer Aconex, the companies announced today. Based in Melbourne, Aconex’s cloud-based software allow teams working on building projects to collaborate and share documents. Oracle agreed to pay AUD $7.80 (about $5.97) per share in cash for a total of $1.2 billion. This price represents a 47% premium over Aconex’s Friday closing price of AUD $5.29 (about $4.05).

This marks Oracle’s second acquisition of a cloud-based construction software maker so far. Last year, it purchased contract and payment management platform Textura for $663 million and combined it with its own construction management software, called Primavera, to form the Oracle Construction and Engineering Global Business Unit.

Construction projects consist of many moving parts, including multiple contractors and suppliers, complicated building codes and piles of paper documents, and managing everything can be a costly, time-consuming nightmare. This, of course, gives the tech industry an opening. In the past few years, several startups have launched to modernize the building industry, including Fieldwire, PlanGrid, Net30 and UpCodes.

Founded in 2000, Aconex currently has offices in 30 countries and says it has been used to manage over $1 trillion in construction projects. The company claims 5.5 million project users, who can manage and communicate about building progress, documents, safety checklists and other issues on desktops or mobile devices. Oracle says Aconex will complement its cloud-based construction software, which focuses on project planning, management and payments, to create an end-to-end solution for builders. After the acquisition’s close, which is expected to take place in the first half of 2018, Aconex will become part of Oracle’s construction and engineering unit.


In a letter to Aconex’s customers, co-founder and chief executive officer Leigh Jasper said “we expect that Oracle’s continued investment in Aconex will deliver more functionality and capabilities at a quicker pace, as well as provide better integration and alignment with Oracle’s other product offerings.”

One of the largest enterprise software companies in the world, Oracle makes several acquisitions a year. According to Crunchbase, Oracle has agreed to buy three other companies in 2017 so far: API design platform Apiary, developer tools startup Wercker and Moat, which measures ad engagement. That’s a small number, however, compared to Oracle’s acquisition spree last year, when it bought nine companies, including NetSuite for $9.3 billion and Textura.

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Proofreading Tips: Spellcheck Is Lying to You

proofreading tips

Spellcheck Is Lying to You – Why You Absolutely Must Proofread!

Proofreading is a tedious task and one that seems less important nowadays with the miracle of spellcheck. Just click on spellcheck and let the machine do it for you. The only trouble is that spellcheck is often wrong. Here are some proofreading tips.

You should never rely solely on a computer for your spelling. Here are some of the reasons.

Proper Noun Problems

One of the most common problems with spellcheck is that it recognizes only a limited number of proper nouns, abbreviations, technical terms and words from foreign languages. So, even when you use spellcheck, you still have to make sure that those words are spelled correctly.

Auto Incorrect

Spellcheckers locate misspelled words and correct them. Hopefully. At least that’s what they’re supposed to do. But if a spellchecker auto-corrects a word to the wrong word, this is bad news.

For example, if you’re writing about “espresso” and mistakenly spell it “expresso,” your spellchecker might give you a helping hand and make it into “express.” It might turn your “definitely” into “defiantly,” which could definitely confuse your readers.

Making Spellcheck Dumber

If you consistently misspell a word, you may “train” your spellchecker. This is a natural function of most spellcheckers so that they can accept proper names and alternate spellings.

For example, if you write “color” as “colour,” spellcheck may correct it the first time or two (if it’s an American version). But as you consistently write it that way, it will eventually come to accept the fact and stop correcting you.

The danger is that if you keep misspelling a certain word, spellcheck may follow your lead and misspell it as well.

Human vs. Computers

Especially frustrating to writers is the fact that spellcheck will sometimes mark something as incorrect that simply isn’t. Who knows what’s going on in your computers algorithmic brain?

This leads to frustration as you look at the word or phrase, puzzle over it, and go on a web-wide quest to figure out how you’re breaking the rules of English. All the while, you could’ve trusted your gut and you’d be paragraphs down the page by now.

Spellcheck Checks Spelling – Only

Spellcheck actually does only one thing – it checks spelling. It can’t do all of your proofreading for you because it operates under a limited set of rules. Grammar check is the same way. It can’t handle complex sentences and can’t understand context, both of which are important.

You should spellcheck and proofread. If possible, have a few others proofread your work as well. Writers don’t do all of their own proofreading. It’s important to get as many eyes as possible on your copy. Someone will catch what someone else missed.